BakurBakur is the Kurdish name for the southeastern part of Turkey, home to nearly half world'sKurds.Since 1984, when the Marxist-Leninist Kurdish political party the PKK launched the armedstruggle against the Turkish government, more than 40,000 people have died. Violence andoppression have hit at the core of the region’s social fabric, impacting education and business,stalling growth and progress.In eastern and southeastern Anatolia, socioeconomic development has been virtually non-existent.Kurdish society calls for full recognition of their identity by the Turkish government.Meanwhile, Kurdish minorities in Iraq and Syria have been increasing in power.InJuly 2015,the regionwasplunged into some of its worst violence in yearswith daily clashesbetween Turkish army andmilitants from PKK. The new conflictshattered a two-year ceasefirethat raised hopes to end three decades of fighting.Several towns and cities in the southeast brokeaway from Turkey, with groups of young Kurdsaffiliated to the traditional PKK chain-commandwho tookup arms, dug trenches and erectedbarricades to seal off neighborhoods and prevent the advances of the Turkish security forces toassert control of their territory. In response,Turkish governmentforcesdeclared a state ofemergency, imposed curfews and implemented repressive measures against Kurds. A numberoftowns in the southeast became battlefields withmassive security operations against the Kurdisharmed movement, during which hundreds of civiliansdied.According to the International Crisis Group, 4,226 people, including 465 civilians, were killed inTurkey between July 2015 and December 2018. In March 2017, the United Nations remarks'concern' over the Turkish government's operations andcalled for independent assessment forthe alleged "massive destruction, killings and numerous other serious human rights violations"against the ethnic Kurdish minority. The fighting has now ended, but fears that a culture will beerased remain.