The Brazilian Amazon has become one of the world’s most violent non conflict zones in recent years.
In the last ten years the violence has shifted from the wealthy Southern Eastern states like Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, to Brazil’s poorer Northern and North Eastern states, most of which have seen homicides rates – usually gun deaths – rise by more than 100 per cent.
Between 2002 and 2012, the rate of murders in the Amazonas and Pará states, through which the Amazon River flows from the tri-border with Colombia and Peru to the Atlantic, increased respectively by 298,2% and 204%.
Analysts attribute the rise in violence in the region a culture of violence born through impunity, weak state institutions and centuries of savage inequality, exacerbated by drug trafficking networks and land conflicts over natural resources, , which is causing record number of killings of environmental activists and indigenous leaders.
The work mainly explores the state of Pará and aims to identify the drivers of violence in the Brazilian Amazon region.